Site Wiki

Knowledge = Power

User Tools

Site Tools


machiavelli

Differences

This shows you the differences between two versions of the page.

Link to this comparison view

Both sides previous revision Previous revision
machiavelli [2017/02/04 03:02]
stevarino
machiavelli [2017/02/04 03:05]
stevarino
Line 2: Line 2:
  
 Niccolò Machiavelli (Italian: [nikkoˈlɔ makjaˈvɛlli];​ 3 May 1469 – 21 June 1527), or more formally Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli,​ was an Italian Renaissance historian, politician, diplomat, philosopher,​ humanist, and writer.[1][2] He has often been called the founder of modern political science.[3] He was for many years a senior official in the Florentine Republic, with responsibilities in diplomatic and military affairs. He also wrote comedies, carnival songs, and poetry. His personal correspondence is renowned in the Italian language. He was secretary to the Second Chancery of the Republic of Florence from 1498 to 1512, when the Medici were out of power. He wrote his most renowned work The Prince (Il Principe) in 1513. Niccolò Machiavelli (Italian: [nikkoˈlɔ makjaˈvɛlli];​ 3 May 1469 – 21 June 1527), or more formally Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli,​ was an Italian Renaissance historian, politician, diplomat, philosopher,​ humanist, and writer.[1][2] He has often been called the founder of modern political science.[3] He was for many years a senior official in the Florentine Republic, with responsibilities in diplomatic and military affairs. He also wrote comedies, carnival songs, and poetry. His personal correspondence is renowned in the Italian language. He was secretary to the Second Chancery of the Republic of Florence from 1498 to 1512, when the Medici were out of power. He wrote his most renowned work The Prince (Il Principe) in 1513.
 +
 +{{ :​wiki:​portrait_of_niccolo_machiavelli_by_santi_di_tito.jpg?​nolink&​200|}}
  
 "​Machiavellianism"​ is a widely used negative term to characterize unscrupulous politicians of the sort Machiavelli described most famously in The Prince. Machiavelli described immoral behavior, such as dishonesty and killing innocents, as being normal and effective in politics. He even seemed to endorse it in some situations. The book itself gained notoriety when some readers claimed that the author was teaching evil, and providing "evil recommendations to tyrants to help them maintain their power."​[4] The term "​Machiavellian"​ is often associated with political deceit, deviousness,​ and realpolitik. On the other hand, many commentators,​ such as Baruch Spinoza, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Denis Diderot, have argued that Machiavelli was actually a republican, even when writing The Prince, and his writings were an inspiration to Enlightenment proponents of modern democratic political philosophy.[5][6][7] In one place for example he noted his admiration for the selfless Roman dictator Cincinnatus.[8] "​Machiavellianism"​ is a widely used negative term to characterize unscrupulous politicians of the sort Machiavelli described most famously in The Prince. Machiavelli described immoral behavior, such as dishonesty and killing innocents, as being normal and effective in politics. He even seemed to endorse it in some situations. The book itself gained notoriety when some readers claimed that the author was teaching evil, and providing "evil recommendations to tyrants to help them maintain their power."​[4] The term "​Machiavellian"​ is often associated with political deceit, deviousness,​ and realpolitik. On the other hand, many commentators,​ such as Baruch Spinoza, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Denis Diderot, have argued that Machiavelli was actually a republican, even when writing The Prince, and his writings were an inspiration to Enlightenment proponents of modern democratic political philosophy.[5][6][7] In one place for example he noted his admiration for the selfless Roman dictator Cincinnatus.[8]
  
 Machiavelli was born in Florence, Italy, the third child and first son of attorney Bernardo di Niccolò Machiavelli and his wife,were Bartolomea di Stefano Nelli.[9] The Machiavelli family is believed to be descended from the old marquesses of Tuscany and to have produced thirteen Florentine Gonfalonieres of Justice,​[10] one of the offices of a group of nine citizens selected by drawing lots every two months and who formed the government, or Signoria; but he was never a full citizen of Florence because of the nature of Florentine citizenship in that time even under the republican regime. Machiavelli married Marietta Corsini in 1502.[11] Machiavelli was born in Florence, Italy, the third child and first son of attorney Bernardo di Niccolò Machiavelli and his wife,were Bartolomea di Stefano Nelli.[9] The Machiavelli family is believed to be descended from the old marquesses of Tuscany and to have produced thirteen Florentine Gonfalonieres of Justice,​[10] one of the offices of a group of nine citizens selected by drawing lots every two months and who formed the government, or Signoria; but he was never a full citizen of Florence because of the nature of Florentine citizenship in that time even under the republican regime. Machiavelli married Marietta Corsini in 1502.[11]
- 
-{{ :​wiki:​portrait_of_niccolo_machiavelli_by_santi_di_tito.jpg?​nolink&​100|}} 
  
 Machiavelli was born in a tumultuous era in which popes waged acquisitive wars against Italian city-states,​ and people and cities often fell from power as France, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, and Switzerland battled for regional influence and control. Political-military alliances continually changed, featuring condottieri (mercenary leaders), who changed sides without warning, and the rise and fall of many short-lived governments.[12] Machiavelli was born in a tumultuous era in which popes waged acquisitive wars against Italian city-states,​ and people and cities often fell from power as France, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, and Switzerland battled for regional influence and control. Political-military alliances continually changed, featuring condottieri (mercenary leaders), who changed sides without warning, and the rise and fall of many short-lived governments.[12]
Line 18: Line 18:
  
 However, Machiavelli'​s success did not last. In August 1512 the Medici, backed by Pope Julius II used Spanish troops to defeat the Florentines at Prato, but many historians have argued that it was due to Piero Soderini'​s unwillingness to compromise with the Medici, who were holding Prato under siege. In the wake of the siege, Soderini resigned as Florentine head of state and left in exile. The experience would, like Machiavelli'​s time in foreign courts and with the Borgia, heavily influence his political writings. However, Machiavelli'​s success did not last. In August 1512 the Medici, backed by Pope Julius II used Spanish troops to defeat the Florentines at Prato, but many historians have argued that it was due to Piero Soderini'​s unwillingness to compromise with the Medici, who were holding Prato under siege. In the wake of the siege, Soderini resigned as Florentine head of state and left in exile. The experience would, like Machiavelli'​s time in foreign courts and with the Borgia, heavily influence his political writings.
- 
  
 Machiavelli'​s cenotaph in the Santa Croce Church in Florence Machiavelli'​s cenotaph in the Santa Croce Church in Florence
Line 33: Line 32:
 Machiavelli died in 1527 at 58 after receiving his last rites.[16] He was buried at the Church of Santa Croce in Florence. An epitaph honoring him is inscribed on his monument. The Latin legend reads: TANTO NOMINI NULLUM PAR ELOGIUM ("So great a name (has) no adequate praise"​ or "No eulogy (would be) a match for such a great name"​). Machiavelli died in 1527 at 58 after receiving his last rites.[16] He was buried at the Church of Santa Croce in Florence. An epitaph honoring him is inscribed on his monument. The Latin legend reads: TANTO NOMINI NULLUM PAR ELOGIUM ("So great a name (has) no adequate praise"​ or "No eulogy (would be) a match for such a great name"​).
  
-Works[edit] + 
-Republicanism +The Prince
-Phrygian cap on pole.svg +
-Central concepts[show] +
-Schools[show] +
-Important thinkers[show] +
-History[show] +
-By country[show] +
-Related topics[show] +
-Politics portal +
-v t e +
-See also: Category:​Works by Niccolò Machiavelli +
-The Prince[edit]+
 Main article: The Prince Main article: The Prince
 Machiavelli'​s best-known book Il Principe contains several maxims concerning politics. Instead of the more traditional target audience of a hereditary prince, it concentrates on the possibility of a "new prince"​. To retain power, the hereditary prince must carefully balance the interests of a variety of institutions to which the people are accustomed. By contrast a new prince has the more difficult task in ruling: He must first stabilize his newfound power in order to build an enduring political structure. Machiavelli suggests that the social benefits of stability and security can be achieved in the face of moral corruption. Machiavelli believed that public and private morality had to be understood as two different things in order to rule well. As a result, a ruler must be concerned not only with reputation, but also must be positively willing to act immorally at the right times. Machiavelli believed as a ruler, it was better to be widely feared than to be greatly loved; A loved ruler retains authority by obligation while a feared leader rules by fear of punishment.[17] As a political theorist, Machiavelli emphasized the occasional need for the methodical exercise of brute force or deceit including extermination of entire noble families to head off any chance of a challenge to the prince'​s authority. Machiavelli'​s best-known book Il Principe contains several maxims concerning politics. Instead of the more traditional target audience of a hereditary prince, it concentrates on the possibility of a "new prince"​. To retain power, the hereditary prince must carefully balance the interests of a variety of institutions to which the people are accustomed. By contrast a new prince has the more difficult task in ruling: He must first stabilize his newfound power in order to build an enduring political structure. Machiavelli suggests that the social benefits of stability and security can be achieved in the face of moral corruption. Machiavelli believed that public and private morality had to be understood as two different things in order to rule well. As a result, a ruler must be concerned not only with reputation, but also must be positively willing to act immorally at the right times. Machiavelli believed as a ruler, it was better to be widely feared than to be greatly loved; A loved ruler retains authority by obligation while a feared leader rules by fear of punishment.[17] As a political theorist, Machiavelli emphasized the occasional need for the methodical exercise of brute force or deceit including extermination of entire noble families to head off any chance of a challenge to the prince'​s authority.
Line 59: Line 47:
 Other interpretations include for example that of Antonio Gramsci, who argued that Machiavelli'​s audience for this work was not even the ruling class but the common people because the rulers already knew these methods through their education. Other interpretations include for example that of Antonio Gramsci, who argued that Machiavelli'​s audience for this work was not even the ruling class but the common people because the rulers already knew these methods through their education.
  
-Discourses on Livy[edit]+===== Discourses on Livy ===== 
 Main article: Discourses on Livy Main article: Discourses on Livy
 The Discourses on the First Ten Books of Titus Livy, published in 1531, written 1517, often referred to simply as the "​Discourses"​ or Discorsi, is nominally a discussion regarding the classical history of early Ancient Rome although it strays very far from this subject matter and also uses contemporary political examples to illustrate points. Machiavelli presents it as a series of lessons on how a republic should be started and structured. It is a larger work than The Prince, and while it more openly explains the advantages of republics, it also contains many similar themes. Commentators disagree about how much the two works agree with each other, frequently referring to leaders of democracies as "​princes"​. It includes early versions of the concept of checks and balances, and asserts the superiority of a republic over a principality. It became one of the central texts of republicanism,​ and has often been argued to be a superior work to The Prince.[21] The Discourses on the First Ten Books of Titus Livy, published in 1531, written 1517, often referred to simply as the "​Discourses"​ or Discorsi, is nominally a discussion regarding the classical history of early Ancient Rome although it strays very far from this subject matter and also uses contemporary political examples to illustrate points. Machiavelli presents it as a series of lessons on how a republic should be started and structured. It is a larger work than The Prince, and while it more openly explains the advantages of republics, it also contains many similar themes. Commentators disagree about how much the two works agree with each other, frequently referring to leaders of democracies as "​princes"​. It includes early versions of the concept of checks and balances, and asserts the superiority of a republic over a principality. It became one of the central texts of republicanism,​ and has often been argued to be a superior work to The Prince.[21]
machiavelli.txt · Last modified: 2018/07/20 12:26 (external edit)